Metrics details. In recent years, stem cell therapy has become a very promising and advanced scientific research topic. The development of treatment methods has evoked great expectations. This paper is a review focused on the discovery of different stem cells and the potential therapies based on these cells. The genesis of stem cells is followed by laboratory steps of controlled stem cell culturing and derivation. Quality control and teratoma formation assays are important procedures in assessing the properties of the stem cells tested.
Stem Cells Applications in Regenerative Medicine and Disease Therapeutics
Adult stem cell
Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells , found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. Scientific interest in adult stem cells is centered on their ability to divide or self-renew indefinitely, and generate all the cell types of the organ from which they originate, potentially regenerating the entire organ from a few cells. They have mainly been studied in humans and model organisms such as mice and rats. To ensure self-renewal, stem cells undergo two types of cell division see Stem cell division and differentiation diagram. Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter stem cells, whereas asymmetric division produces one stem cell and one progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential. Progenitors can go through several rounds of cell division before finally differentiating into a mature cell. It is believed that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins such as receptors and their associated proteins between the daughter cells.
Adult stem cell
Stem cells are cells that can differentiate into other types of cells, and can also divide in self-renewal to produce more of the same type of stem cells. In mammals , there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells , which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts in early embryonic development, and adult stem cells , which are found in various tissues of fully developed mammals. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo , stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells—ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm see induced pluripotent stem cells —but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues. There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: bone marrow , adipose tissue , and blood.
Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. Research into adult stem cells has been fueled by their abilities to divide or self-renew indefinitely and generate all the cell types of the organ from which they originate — potentially regenerating the entire organ from a few cells. Unlike embryonic stem cells, the use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not controversial because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. The rigorous definition of a stem cell requires that it possesses two properties: Self-renewal - the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state.